Lastly, I always start each day (on fasting days I take them with my meal) with a dose of bioavailable multivitamins to fill any nutritional gaps. If you plan on doing the same in the future, just remember to go for all-natural and organic multi-vitamin because synthetic vitamins tend to have no oral bioavailability. New Chapter (the one I linked above) has a high oral bioavailability and is one of the best multis on the market.
To conduct the study, researchers divided the 150 individuals into three groups: a control group that wasn’t asked to change their diets; a group that followed the 5:2 diet; and a group that followed a more conventional diet of continuously restricting their calorie intake by 20 percent. During the first few months of the experiment, a nutritionist monitored the participants to make sure they adhered to the diets; the next few months saw the participants monitor their own diets.

Understanding the potential adverse effects of intermittent fasting is limited by an inadequate number of rigorous clinical trials. One 2015 review of low-quality clinical studies found that short-term intermittent fasting may produce minor adverse effects, such as continuous feelings of weakness and hunger, headaches, fainting, or dehydration.[26] Long-term fasting may cause eating disorders or malnutrition, with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.[26]
^ Guéranger, Prosper; Fromage, Lucien (1912). The Liturgical Year: Lent. Burns, Oates & Washbourne. p. 8. St. Benedict's rule prescribed a great many fasts, over and above the ecclesiastical fast of Lent; but it made this great distinction between the two: that whilst Lent obliged the monks, as well as the rest of the faithful, to abstain from food till sunset, these monastic fasts allowed the repast to be taken at the hour of None.
Let me assure you at the outset of this book that I am not advocating prolonged periods of fasting for every believer. A fast can be as short as one meal. Neither do I advocate fasting and praying for the mere sake of saying with self-righteousness, "I have fasted and prayed about this." I do not advocate fasting so that the hungry in a foreign nation might have the food you would have eaten that day -- which is highly unlikely. I do not advocate fasting apart from prayer.
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As long as you’re aware that it isn’t nutritional magic, Sasson isn’t against intermittent fasting altogether. “I’ve worked with patients who need positive reinforcement to see that their weight went down to feel better, and they feel in control for the first time,” she says. “That self-efficacy, that feeling that they could do it—for some, that might be important.”
“Cycles of fasting can reset and rejuvenate the human body,” said Valter Longo, director of the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California. Periods with no food, he said, help the body eliminate and replace damaged cells with new ones through a process called autophagy (the study of which recently garnered a Nobel Prize). (Longo is a leading fasting researcher but he’s pretty dug in — with a book about fasting, and a company that sells fasting products. He says he donates all the proceeds from the company and the book to health charities.)
Of the two most popular methods, Sasson leans toward the 5:2 schedule as slightly more manageable, since you’re only reducing your intake twice a week. But again, that’s contingent on you being a responsible dieter on your days of lowered caloric intake, which requires an immense amount of discipline—especially when it comes to remembering to drink water. “You can go a long time without food, but only a few days without adequate hydration,” she warns.
For members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, fasting is total abstinence from food and drink accompanied by prayer. Members are encouraged to fast on the first Sunday of each month, designated as Fast Sunday. During Fast Sunday, members fast for two consecutive meals (24 hours); this is usually Sunday breakfast and lunch, thus the fasting occurs between the evening meal on Saturday and the evening meal on Sunday. The money saved by not having to purchase and prepare meals is donated to the church as a fast offering, which is then used to help people in need.[79] Members are encouraged to donate more than just the minimal amount, and be as generous as possible. The late LDS President Gordon B. Hinckley asked: "Think ... of what would happen if the principles of fast day and the fast offering were observed throughout the world. The hungry would be fed, the naked clothed, the homeless sheltered. … A new measure of concern and unselfishness would grow in the hearts of people everywhere."[80] Fasting and the associated donations for use in assisting those in need, are an important principle as evidenced by Church leaders addresses on the subject during General Conferences of the Church, e.g. The blessing of a proper fast in 2004, Is Not This the Fast That I Have Chosen? in 2015
Another big concern of mine, but it turns out this fear was unfounded. We’ve been told by the supplement industry that we need to consume 30 g of protein every few hours, as that’s the most amount of protein our body can process at a time. Along with that, we’ve been told that if we don’t eat protein every few hours, our body’s muscle will start to break down to be burned as energy.
You’ll run out of energy. When you don’t have anything in your system for several hours, your blood sugar will eventually drop below baseline. If you’ve ever had a blood sugar crash, you know how this state feels. Sleepiness, trouble focusing, lightheadedness, intense cravings, and the occasional mood swing typically accompany low blood sugar. Your cells run low on fuel and they start demanding that you give them more carbs.[13]
Plea through fasting. While keeping mind that fasting isn’t a manipulative tool to add to your prayer requests, you can still fast to give yourself wholly to God when you’re pleading for something or someone. Fast when you find a particular condition intolerable, and you can’t be satisfied until you spend time with God expressing your concerns about it.
Annie, I have to take my anticonvulsants at 12 hour intervals as well. I’ll be taking them with water in the am. I won’t be eating till 10 am and I will restart my fast after 6 pm. Just starting today. Hoping to to kick my ketosis into high gear. Very optimistic. We all have things we have to work around and deal with, this is one of mine. Keto is for me and I think IF is too. Keep you posted.
Is fasting worth the effort? A recent metanalysis combined the results of six studies of intermittent fasting found the average weight loss of 15.4 pounds was equal to continuous dieting but both were significantly better than no treatment. It’s hard to draw definitive conclusions based on the results of six studies. Since fasting is difficult for most people, even if it proved to be effective, it might not be a long-term solution to weight control. The 5:2 diet would be more acceptable than a strict fast but many folks would still be miserable on Mondays and Thursdays if they tried to follow Jimmy Kimmel’s example.
Yes, by cutting out an entire meal each day, you are consuming fewer calories per week – even if your two meals per day are slightly bigger than before. Overall, you’re still consuming fewer calories per day. This is highlighted in a recent JAMA study[b] in which both calorie restricted dieters and intermittent fasters lost similar amounts of weight over a year period.
We are wise to recognize that food was the enticement the devil used to cause Eve and Adam to sin in the Garden of Eden. In Genesis 2 the Lord God told Adam and Eve that they could eat freely of every tree in the garden of Eden, "but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2:17). God did not tell Adam and Eve to refrain from touching a particular animal or smelling a particular flower or swimming in a certain stream. He told them to refrain from taking a particular fruit into their bodies-one type of fruit out of all the many types He had made available to them.
The findings were clear: Fasting just five days per month improved people’s health outcomes. The group that fasted lost weight (about 7 pounds on average), lost some body fat, lowered their blood pressure, and decreased their IGF-1, a genetic marker for diseases such as cancer. (Their total cholesterol, blood glucose, and triglycerides didn’t budge.)

For some, fasting may be easier to maintain if viewed as a semi-regular activity throughout the week. If you don’t think you can cut down on calories every day of the week at first, try a low-calorie fast for only two days a week. However, you have to be careful about this schedule: just because you’re not fasting every day doesn’t mean that your “off days” should be used to binge on high calorie foods. 
Cons: Even though there is flexibility in when you eat, Leangains has pretty specific guidelines for what to eat, especially in relation to when you’re working out. The strict nutrition plan and scheduling meals perfectly around workouts can make the program a bit tougher to adhere to. (You can learn more about the specifics — as well as when to time these meals — directly from Leangains here and here.)
Also, if you eat a big dinner the night before, I think you’ll be surprised by how much energy you have in the morning. Most of the worries or concerns that people have about intermittent fasting are due to the fact that they have had it pounded into them by companies that they need to eat breakfast or they need to eat every three hours and so on. The science doesn’t support it and neither do my personal experiences.
The purpose in fasting for God is not about giving up food; it is about removing the obstacles that get in the way of fully focusing on Him. Human beings are conditioned to eat, usually 3 meals a day and snacks. We are so focused on what we are going to eat next, we leave very little room in our minds for thinking about God. Removing the food will free up your mind so you can meditate on God.
A systematic review of 40 studies found that intermittent fasting was effective for weight loss, with a typical loss of 7-11 pounds over 10 weeks. [2] There was much variability in the studies, ranging in size from 4 to 334 subjects, and followed from 2 to 104 weeks. It is important to note that different study designs and methods of intermittent fasting were used, and participant characteristics differed (lean vs. obese).  Half of the studies were controlled trials comparing the fasting group to a comparison group and/or a control group (either continuous calorie restriction or usual lifestyle), with the other half examining an intermittent fasting group alone. A brief summary of their findings:
In Methodism, fasting is considered one of the Works of Piety.[52] The Discipline of the Wesleyan Methodist Church required Methodists to fast on "the first Friday after New-Year's-day; after Lady-day; after Midsummer-day; and after Michaelmas-day."[53] Historically, Methodist clergy are required to fast on Wednesdays, in remembrance of the betrayal of Christ, and on Fridays, in remembrance of His crucifixion and death.[54][55] "The General Rules of the Methodist Church," written by the founder of Methodism, John Wesley, wrote that "It is expected of all who desire to continue in these societies that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation, by attending upon all the ordinances of God, such are: the public worship of God; the ministry of the Word, either read or expounded; the Supper of the Lord; family and private prayer; searching the Scriptures; and fasting or abstinence."[55] The Directions Given to Band Societies (25 December 1744) mandated fasting and abstinence from meat on all Fridays of the year,[53][56] a practice that was reemphasized by Phoebe Palmer and became standard in the Methodist churches of the holiness movement.[57][58] Wesley himself also fasted before receiving Holy Communion "for the purpose of focusing his attention on God," and asked other Methodist Christians to do the same.[55] In accordance with Scripture and the teachings of the Church Fathers, fasting in Methodism is done "from morning until evening"; John Wesley kept a more rigorous Friday Fast, fasting from sundown (on Thursday) until sundown (on Friday) in accordance with the liturgical definition of a day.[55][59] The historic Methodist homilies regarding the Sermon on the Mount also stressed the importance of the Lenten fast.[60] The United Methodist Church therefore states that:
In the Bahá'í Faith, fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset during the Bahá'í month of 'Ala' ( 1 or 2 March – 19 or 20 March).[22] Bahá'u'lláh established the guidelines in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. It is the complete abstaining from both food and drink during daylight hours (including abstaining from smoking). Consumption of prescribed medications is not restricted. Observing the fast is an individual obligation and is binding on Bahá'ís between 15 years (considered the age of maturity) and 70 years old.[22] Exceptions to fasting include individuals younger than 15 or older than 70; those suffering illness; women who are pregnant, nursing, or menstruating; travellers who meet specific criteria; individuals whose profession involves heavy labor and those who are very sick, where fasting would be considered dangerous. For those involved in heavy labor, they are advised to eat in private and generally to have simpler or smaller meals than are normal.
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